The move is tantamount to sacrificing the Italian economy in the short term to save it from the ravages of the virus in the long term. The measures will turn stretches of Italy’s wealthy north — including the economic and cultural capital of Milan and landmark tourist destinations such as Venice — into quarantined red zones until at least April 3.

They will prevent the free movement of roughly 16 million people.

Funerals and cultural events are banned. The decree requires that people keep a distance of at least one meter from one another at sporting events, bars, churches and supermarkets.

The Italian outbreak — the worst outside Asia — has inflicted serious damage on one of Europe’s most fragile economies and prompted the closing of Italy’s schools. The country’s cases nearly tripled from about 2,500 infections on Wednesday to more than 7,375 on Sunday. Deaths rose to 366.

More and more countries have adopted or are considering stronger measures to try to keep infected people from entering and to contain outbreaks.

On Sunday, Saudi Arabia cut off access to Shiite Muslim towns and villages in the east of the kingdom, cordoning off an area in Qatif Governorate where all 11 of the country’s confirmed coronavirus cases have been identified. And local Saudi media reported that the country would temporarily close down all educational institutions and block travel to and from a number of countries in the region. The kingdom had already suspended pilgrimages to the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

In Iran, which has been hit the hardest in the Middle East, state media reported that all flights to Europe would be suspended indefinitely.

The health minister in France, one of Europe’s bigger trouble spots, announced a ban on gatherings of more than 1,000 people.

Israel, with 39 cases, is considering requiring all Israelis and foreign nationals arriving from abroad to go into self-quarantine, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said on Sunday.

Global financial markets on Monday began a perilous week, as the relentless spread of the coronavirus and a clash among the world’s biggest oil producers rattle investors.

European stocks plunged when they opened on Monday, with London and Frankfurt stock markets trading down 8 percent. Paris and other European exchanges were close behind, echoing sentiment in the Asia-Pacific region, where markets ended sharply lower.

Wall Street looked set to follow, according to futures markets.

Government bonds signaled that investors wanted the security of a safe harbor, as yields on U.S. government debt fell to new lows. Gold, the tried-and-true indicator of investor skittishness, rose.

Oil prices lost nearly a quarter of their value in futures markets, as two major producers, Saudi Arabia and Russia, set off a price war while the world’s thirst for crude is already ebbing. While low oil prices can give consumers a boost, they can also disrupt countries that depend heavily on petroleum dollars to keep their economies running.

World markets were already shaken by the near-shutdown of China in January, as the new coronavirus began spreading beyond the center of the city of Wuhan. Even before the weekend’s developments, stocks in the United States had fallen by more than 10 percent over the past month, as measured by the S&P 500 stock index.

The problem globally is growing worse.

On Sunday, Italy took the dramatic step of locking down a large chunk of its industrial northern region. In the United States, a top government disease expert warned that regional lockdowns there might become necessary, though he played down the idea of tight quarantines like the kind China has enacted.

Bruno Le Maire, the French finance minister, on Monday called for a big economic stimulus plan for Europe to counter the impact of the outbreak.

Investors in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region showed on Monday that they see the problems getting worse before they get better.

The Frankfurt and London exchanges dropped by 8 percent in early Monday trading, while in Paris stocks were trading 4 percent lower. An index of Europe’s 50 biggest companies was down nearly 6 percent.

Those holding money in Asia had already voted with their feet, fleeing stocks across the region. In Japan, the Nikkei 225 index fell more than 5 percent, after economic data released Monday morning suggested the country’s economic slump at the end of last year was worse than expected.

In oil markets, futures tracking West Texas Intermediate crude fell to about $36 a barrel, down more than 20 percent after Saudi Arabia declared it would cut prices.

Analysts warned that if Saudi Arabia failed to reach an agreement with Russia on oil prices soon, it could trigger not only a further spiraling in oil prices but also prompt contagion across financial markets.

A fear gauge known as the Vix index jumped to a multiyear high. It last reached similar levels in August 2015, when a sudden devaluation of China’s currency sparked a global markets rout.

China, the source of the coronavirus epidemic, is now touting the international aid it is distributing to support the fight against it.

The latest assistance included a $20 million donation to the World Health Organization and the dispatch of an expert team to Iraq, which now has 60 confirmed cases and 6 deaths. The W.H.O.’s general director, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, announced China’s contribution after meeting on Saturday with China’s top envoy to the United Nations in Geneva.

The donation would put China among the top voluntary donors to the organization, behind Britain, Sweden and Norway, according to the W.H.O’s website. The agency is funded by streams of revenue from countries, international organizations and charities.

In Baghdad, a team of Chinese experts arrived over the weekend aboard a plane carrying supplies, including masks, thermometers and scanners. That followed a similar relief effort in Iran, which has been among the hardest hit nations outside of China, with nearly 7,000 cases and 194 deaths. China has also dispatched aid to Japan, South Korea and Pakistan.

The donations reflect a conscious effort by China’s government to counter criticism at home and abroad over the country’s early missteps in handling the outbreak in Wuhan.

“We must do well in the diplomatic work associated with epidemic prevention and control, and continue engagement and coordination with the World Health Organization and with the related countries and regions,” the country’s leader, Xi Jinping, said in a speech last month.

News of the donation to the W.H.O. was met with a flurry of comments on the country’s tightly controlled social media sites.

Many comments were patriotic in tone, calling it a sign of China’s emergence as a responsible world power. Others were critical, saying the money should have been used to help the residents of Hubei, who have been kept under a strict lockdown since late January. Still others accused the government of using the money to buy the WHO’s support of China’s strategy.

The Grand Princess cruise ship that has been held off the coast of California after 21 people onboard tested positive for the coronavirus was on its way to dock on Monday at the Port of Oakland, the vessel’s operator said.

More than 3,500 passengers and crew members are aboard, and 19 crew members and two passengers have tested positive.

After the ship docks, those aboard will be taken to military facilities around the country to be tested and quarantined for 14 days, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

According to a statement from the department, about 1,000 passengers who are California residents are to go to the Travis Air Force Base in Fairfield, Calif., or the Miramar Naval Air Station in San Diego. Residents of other states will be taken to the Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland in Texas or Dobbins Air Force Base in Marietta, Ga.

The Department of State is working with other countries to repatriate “several hundred passengers,” according to the statement.

Princess Cruises initially said on Saturday that the ship would dock on Sunday. It later amended that statement after what it called a change in planning by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The U.S. has counted at least 539 cases across 34 states — Connecticut reported its first case and Washington announced another patient being treated for coronavirus had died on Sunday — and the District of Columbia, and logged 22 deaths. Washington State, New York, California, Maryland and Oregon have declared emergencies. A growing number of schools are shutting down across the country, raising concerns about the closings will affect learning, burden families and upend communities.

The U.S. Army suspended travel to and from Italy and South Korea, now the world’s third largest hot spot, until May 6, an order that affects 4,500 soldiers and family members. And the Finnish armed forces announced that troop exercises planned for March 9-19 with Norway would be scrapped.

On Sunday, the leading U.S. expert on infectious diseases, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, said that it was possible that regional lockdowns could become necessary and recommended that those at greatest risk — the elderly and those with underlying health conditions — abstain from travel.

Dr. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said the Trump administration was prepared to “take whatever action is appropriate” to contain the outbreak, including travel restrictions in areas with a high number of cases.

“I don’t think it would be as draconian as ‘nobody in and nobody out,’” Dr. Fauci said on “Fox News Sunday.” “But there’ll be, if we continue to get cases like this, particularly at the community level, there will be what we call mitigation.”

Even as the rate of new infections appeared to taper in China, the number of cases around the world continued to rise on Sunday, with some of the biggest clusters emerging in Europe.

Besides the sharp rise in Italy, Germany reported more than 930 cases; Switzerland’s total reached 281; and Britain’s health department said that three people with the virus had died and that the number of cases in the country had jumped to 273 by Sunday.

The smallest E.U. nation, Malta, reported its first confirmed case on Saturday: a 12-year-old girl recently returned from a vacation in northern Italy. Her condition was described as good.

The Spanish authorities announced on Sunday that three more people diagnosed with coronavirus had died in Madrid, raising the number of coronavirus fatalities in the country to 13. There are now over 500 cases, the authorities said.

Salvador Illa, Spain’s health minister, said at a news conference in Madrid that several cases in Spain were linked to people who recently traveled to Italy.

“Italy has taken very drastic measures and the most immediate impact is to halt the influx of people from northern Italy,” Mr. Illa added.

Iraq reported 62 confirmed cases and four deaths.

Among Iran’s more than 6,000 cases number a vice president, 23 members of Parliament, the deputy health minister and several other senior officials. The country raised its death toll to 149 from 100 a day earlier, which includes a senior adviser to the country’s supreme leader and Fatemeh Rahbar, a member of Parliament.

Meanwhile, China’s new infections from the coronavirus continue to fall. The government on Sunday confirmed 40 new cases of infection from the virus, and another 22 deaths. Of the new infections, 36 were in Hubei, the central Chinese province where the outbreak began. The remaining four were people confirmed with the virus after arriving from abroad, meaning that for two successive days — at least according to the official data — China has recorded no new locally borne infections from the coronavirus outside of Hubei.

But overall China remains by far the worst hit country from the epidemic. In total, 80,735 people in China have been infected with the virus, and 3,119 have died from it, according to the official data, which may undercount both figures.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo criticized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Sunday for delays in allowing private laboratories in New York State to test for the coronavirus. The number of cases in the state has risen to 106, but more testing is needed for officials to know the true extent of the spread of the virus, the governor said.

“C.D.C., wake up, let the states test, let private labs test, let’s increase as quickly as possible our testing capacity so we can identify the positive people,” Mr. Cuomo said.

On Sunday evening, the governor announced that Northwell Health Labs at the Center for Advanced Medicine, a private laboratory on Long Island, had been approved to test under an emergency authorization that would allow 75 to 80 samples a day to be evaluated.

In New York City, Mayor Bill de Blasio said Sunday that there are now 13 cases of the coronavirus, with “hundreds” expected in the weeks to come. He said the city will offer no-interest loans to small businesses with fewer than 100 employees that could show a 25 percent reduction in sales since the coronavirus outbreak and grants of up to $6,000 for businesses with fewer than five employees.

The mayor urged New Yorkers to avoid crowded subway cars and to use alternative forms of transportation, like biking, if possible.

In Scarsdale, in Westchester County, schools will be closed from Monday through March 18 after a faculty member at the district’s middle school tested positive for the virus.

Columbia University and Barnard College in New York canceled classes Monday and Tuesday and will shift to remote classes the rest of the week after a member of its community was quarantined as a result of exposure to the coronavirus.

Senator Ted Cruz interacted with the attendee at the conference, he said in a statement on Sunday. The interaction was less than a minute and consisted of a brief conversation and a handshake, he said. However, he will self-quarantine at his home in Texas this week “out of an abundance of caution.”

Representative Paul Gosar, Republican of Arizona, also said he would isolate himself out of an abundance of caution.

“I was with the individual for an extended period of time, and we shook hands several times,” Mr. Gosar said in a statement.

The American Conservative Union, which hosts the annual Conservative Political Action Conference outside Washington, said the attendee was exposed to the virus before the four-day event and tested positive for it on Saturday.

Medical authorities said people who have interacted with Sen. Cruz in the past 10 days should not be concerned about potential transmission.

The attendee did not interact with the president or the vice president and never attended the events in the main hall, the union said in a statement. The attendee was quarantined in New Jersey.

But many of the thousands of people who attended the conference took to social media to vent their frustrations about a lack of information after it appeared that at least some lawmakers and the White House were briefed about the ill attendee.

Others who spoke at the conference included Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao and Labor Secretary Eugene Scalia. Also in attendance were Jared Kushner, the president’s son-in-law and adviser, and Donald Trump Jr., the president’s eldest son.

On Saturday, President Trump, an admitted germophobe, said he was not worried about the outbreak getting closer to the White House.

“I’m not concerned at all,” the president said.

Mr. Trump also said that he had no plans to curtail his campaign rallies even though other large gatherings of people are being canceled across the country.

“We’re going to have tremendous rallies,” he told reporters at his Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida, where he was spending the weekend.

Nearby, the Palm Beach Convention Center was being disinfected after officials learned that a man who had staffed a vendor booth for the biotech company Biogen on Feb. 28 had tested positive in Pennsylvania.

The center has since hosted a rally for Michael Bloomberg, who subsequently dropped out of the presidential race. It was also a pickup point for hundreds of Trump donors who were bused to Mar-a-Lago for an event with the president on Sunday.

Reporting was contributed by Carlos Tejada, Jason Horowitz, Emma Bubola, Ellen Tumposky, Neil Vigdor and Russell Goldman.


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